POLITICS AND ECONOMY
The constitution of Argentina was established in 1853 to be later revised in 1994. It mandates a separation of power into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level. Each province then contains its own constitution, roughly mirroring the structure of the national constitution.
The president and vice president of Argentina are directly elected for four year terms. Both officers are limited to two consecutive terms and are allowed to stand for a third term or more after an interval of at least one term. The president also holds the power to appoint cabinet ministers, and the constitution grants them considerable power, including the authority to enact laws by presidential decree under conditions of “urgency and necessity” and the line-veto.
The constitution establishes the judiciary as an independent government entity, allowing the president to appoint members of the Supreme Court with the given consent of the Senate. The Supreme Court, however, also holds the power to declare legislative acts unconstitutional.
There are two established parties in the country, one of which the Justicialist Party, the other the Union Civica Radical (the Radical Civic Union). The Justicialist Party was founded in 1945 by Juan Domingo Peron, whereas the UCR was founed in 1891. Both parties are now more broadly based, however in previous years, the Justicialist Party was predominately for the urban middle class, whereas the UCR was predominately for the labor force.
The MERCOSUR is present in Argentina where it serves as a customs union that includes Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and newly Venezuela. Between these countries is an established international trade policy. Chile and Bolivia are associate members, whereas the corporation between Argentina and Brazil is key to MERCOSUR’s broader integratin agenda with political and military elements. The organization also is seeking trade negotiations with other countries and communities such as India, Andean Community, and the European Union.